21. 11. 2017
What is the meaning of the term , the news, it would seem, is obvious — fresh information about something, updated through a certain short period of time. But not every fact becomes public, not every incident deserves the journalist’s attention.
So, there are a number of criteria that must be met by news.
First, the relevance of the information is necessary, no less important are the proximity of the audience, the scale of the incident, the conflict nature of the facts, the correspondence to the interests of the audience,
There are a number of requirements for the material being supplied: clarity, brevity, brightness; accuracy, reliability, responsibility In addition, there is a division of messages into different types and types. They can be: local, national, international, also brief and detailed, calendar and organized, hard and soft . Consider the last couple in more detail.
Hard news leads to a simple fixation of facts, a documented display of reality, maximally objectified, clean data. This form of reporting is very popular, as it eliminates the need to delve into minor, distracting details, thus saving time.
However, the disadvantage of this principle is the loss of some, often important details. Sometimes there is a violation of truthfulness, or the situation can not be disclosed objectively. The specificity of this type of presentation is that all the moves of reasoning are hidden, the reasons for a certain statement are invisible. The facts are heard in a concise, concise manner. The task is for a person to understand everything from a half-word and do not ask unnecessary questions. Names, numbers, extra details, geographical data are removed, or greatly reduced.
A soft form is used when the event is not so significant, or not self-evident enough (in that case, interesting details strengthen it) when the reason for the discussion of the problem is weak, but the message itself can be interesting (in this case the motive is created artificially), so when the urgency of the message is not available (you can report this incident and after a year, becouse it is so funny or strange), or when it is necessary to address in some new way an already known event, or you need to bring an intrigue into the material (if the notice is dull and uninviting, the author adds fine detail «by itself», for example, that case happened somewhere near a concert of a famous musician).
The information is given gradually, but prepares the person for a holistic perception of the content and unobtrusively conveys the essence of the presented.
Depending on the target audience, the content of the material, different types of its presentation are used, it is not always appropriate for one or another strategy of presentation.
For example, the updated data of the exchange market do not need any incompetent opinions of «people’s experts,» only relevance and reliability are important for them.
Information is provided in various genres, notes, correspondence, reports, interviews, blitz polls, questions-answers, reports. But their main task is to answer the questions: «what ?, where ?, when ?, why ?, how?», how? «. Reporting, a note and a report are called upon to quickly report an incident, describe it in some detail, and name details of the main actors. In the interview, the opinion of eyewitnesses or directly participants of the event is reported, the expert’s opinion, and this adds some «life» to the simple text, because it is much easier to perceive information in such a more informal way.
In general, the selection and submission of the necessary information — the process is complex and not always unambiguous, but the main thing is the result.
Let us ponder, what kind of result do various news releases await?
We meet every day directly with it — video, audio, radio, print, directly surrounding people and, of course, the Internet is constantly informed about something new and impressive. Moreover, it is not important whether this information is positive or, on the contrary, negative and even tragic. It «catches» us. Of course, the main task is to inform the target audience with relevant information. But the main thing is that it should awaken the most vivid emotional reaction in a person — whether it is a sincere laugh, whether it is an «righteous» anger, or even horror.
Psychologists have identified several of the most powerful human feelings and emotions, which, in fact, are the cause of a certain type of behavior and habits, which, in turn, dictate the lifestyle. But most importantly — a man yearns for this again and again, without noticing it. And news offer to quench this thirst
So, what are these feelings and emotions?
First of all, it’s pride. The thirst for self-esteem, recognition is so strong that they make a person commit stupid acts. low self-esteem brings painful suffering. But indulgence to this feeling gives a certain satisfaction, a feeling of own importance and necessity.
No less strong anger. He dazzles, everything boils inside, a person seeks to restore justice. Here, by the way, pride can be connected again, they say, I’m so good, I want retribution to those negative people who did it.
Laziness — also has a big impact on a person. It causes a lie, idleness, irritability, even excessive consumption of food. Laziness can be associated with lack of willpower, fear of responsibility, and even children’s complexes. But there is one plus for this quality, thanks to him, in the direction of simplifying everything complex, progress is moving.
Despondency, melancholy — require attention. They cause indifference and apathy. Such a person becomes socially passive, but naturally wants someone out of this state to get him out.
Fear. It aralyzes. Eats from the inside, makes me to rush from side to side in search of protection from the originator.
Greed. A property that forces laziness to conquer, activating brain activity. It causes aspiration to accumulation, acquisition, economy.
Well, curiosity. Sometimes he ignores rationality, seeks answers to questions. Often curiosity is idle and has nothing to do with curiosity, and torments the person who is testing him until he finally gets what he wants.
These feelings cause in man a growing need for the emotions corresponding to them.
The media kindly offer this necessary dose of emotions.
The criminal reports give vent to anger, the result of a football match tells outraged pride that the team you were sick for lost, the release of a new model of a «really smart» smartphone in every possible way indulges laziness (even an extra finger on the screen annoys) .
Replacing the emotional needs of a person, new information becomes a necessary food for the brain. Every day, from the very morning, the sea of the freshest messages hastens to fill the mind, bringing useful information, causing various emotions, and becoming familiar and even routine. All kinds of fashion trends, novelties in various fields require constant familiarization with the course of events. What was fashionable yesterday is no longer fashionable, something in the reverse, has gained popularity. Constant updating of the information helps the person to remain in a trend and to be the first who will know about updatings.
So, whether we realize this or not, the importance of news in our life is underestimated silly. They are easily rooted in modern society and even have become a necessity for us. It remains to filter out the unnecessary, extracting from them the maximum benefit and pleasure for themselves